Department of Traction, Steering and Brakes

Traction & Stability Management

Traction Control and Launch Control

Electronic Stability Control

LSD (Limited Slip Differential)

Torsen LSD (Helical LSD)

Clutch-type LSD (Mechanical LSD)

Electronic LSD (Active LSD)

Torque Vectoring


Example: Mitsubishi AYC

4-Wheel Drive


4WD with Mechanical-type torque split:

Torsen differential - e.g. Audi Quattro system

Crown Gear differential - e.g. Audi RS5 Quattro

Viscous Coupling - e.g. Volkswagen Syncro

Viscous-Coupling Differential Lock - e.g. Subaru Impreza WRX

4WD with Electronic (Active) torque split:

Porsche PSK - Porsche 959 (1987)

Nissan ATTESA E-TS PRO - Nissan Skyline GT-R (1989)

Subaru DCCD - Subaru Impreza WRX STI (1994)

Haldex clutch - Volkswagen 4motion (1998)

Mitsubishi ACD - Mitsubishi Lancer Evo VII to X (2001)

Honda SH-AWD - Honda Legend / Acura RL (2005)

Ferrari 4RM - Ferrari FF (2011)

GKN Twinster - Ford Focus RS Mk3 (2016)

Audi Quattro Ultra - Audi A4 Allroad (2016)

Electric 4WD:

Nissan e-4WD - Nissan March / Cube e-4WD (2002)

PSA Hybrid4 - Peugeot 3008 Hybrid4 (2011)

Individual motor drive - Mercedes SLS Electric Drive (2013)


Electric Power Steering

Column EPS

Single-Pinion EPS

Dual-Pinion EPS

Parallel Axis EPS

Variable Gear Ratio Steering

Honda VGR - Honda Accord (1997)

Honda VGS - Honda S2000 (2000)

Toyota VGRS - Toyota Land Cruiser 100 (2002)

BMW Active Steering - BMW 5-Series E60 (2003)

Steer-by-Wire - Infiniti Q50 Direct Adaptive Steering (2013)

4-Wheel Steering


Brake disc and caliper technology

Cast Iron brakes

Carbon-Ceramic brakes

Electronic aids

ABS (Anti-lock braking system)

Brake Assist

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