General remarks for specifications

Layout

Chassis and body

Dimensions

Engine

Capacity

Valve gears

Induction

Other engine features

Max power

Max torque

Transmission

Suspension layout

Suspension features

Kerb weight

Top speed

0-60 mph

0-100 mph



General remarks for specifications

Layout

FWD: front-wheel drive

RWD: rear-wheel drive


4WD: 4-wheel drive

e-4WD: one axle driven by engine, another axle driven by electric motor.

4WS: 4-wheel steer


General remarks for specifications

Chassis and Body

see AutoZine Technical School

General remarks for specifications

Dimensions

Width does not include mirrors

Wheelbase is the distance between front and rear axle lines

American prefer to use inch instead of mm, where 1 inch = 25.4 mm.


General remarks for specifications

Engine type

see AutoZine Technical School

General remarks for specifications

Capacity

cc: cubic centimeter (1cc = a cubic volume of 1cm x 1cm x 1cm)

American used to use cubic inches instead, where 1 cubic inch = 16.4 cc.

General remarks for specifications

Valve gears

DOHC: double-overhead camshaft

SOHC: single-overhead camshaft

OHV: overhead valve (implies using pushrod to actuate valves)

VVT: variable valve timing

DVVT: dual-variable valve timing (intake+exhaust)

VVL: variable valve lift

VVT+L: variable valve timing and lift (refer to a single mechanism achieving both functions, e.g. cam-changing VVT)

see AutoZine Technical School for more details about valve gears

General remarks for specifications

Induction

VIM: variable intake manifolds

Turbo: turbocharger

Supercharger: mechanical supercharger

VTG turbo: variable turbine geometry turbocharger

Sequential twin-turbo: two turbochargers, one operates at low rev and another joins / takeovers at higher rpm.




General remarks for specifications

Other engine features

DI: direct injection

CDI: common-rail direct injection (for diesel engines)

Twin-spark: 2 spark plugs per cylinder

Cylinder cut-off / Cylinder deactivation: mechanism that shuts down some cylinders to save fuel under light load. Some call it Variable Displacement Management (VDM).









General remarks for specifications

Max power

For hybrid: (engine power) + (electric motor power) = (combined power)

hp: horsepower


ps: stands for Pferdestärke, equivalent to hp.

kW: kilowatt. 1kW = 1.34hp. Most European countries prefer to use kW.

There are different test methods for power measurement. Test conditions such as ambient temperature, atmospheric pressure and accessory loss could be different, thus the same engine could obtain different power ratings by different test methods.

The most commonly used test methods are:
  • EEC: European standard. Measurement is made at 99kPa and 25°C. Rate in kW.
  • SAE: American standard. Measurement is made at 99kPa and 25°C. Rate in hp. 1kW = 1.341hp (SAE).
  • DIN: German standard. Measurement is made at 101.3kPa and 20°C. Rate in hp (ps). 1kW = 1.360hp (DIN).
  • JIS: Japanese standard. Theoretically same as DIN but we always find it is more optimistic.
  • British horsepower: same as SAE. Rated in bhp (could be confused with brake horse power).
In other words, 300hp (SAE) = 300bhp (British) > 300hp (DIN) > 300ps (JIS)

In AutoZine, generally speaking, horsepower of American, European and Japanese cars are rated by SAE, DIN and JIS respectively. However, cars destined to USA and Europe are rated by local standards.






General remarks for specifications

Max torque

For hybrid: (engine torque) + (electric motor torque) = (combined torque)

lbft: pound-foot


EU prefers to use Nm. 100Nm = 73.7lbft.

Japan prefers to use kgm. 10kgm = 98.1Nm = 72.3lbft.


General remarks for specifications

Transmission

Automated manual: based on manual gearbox but employs automatic clutch and gearshift mechanism.

Twin-clutch gearbox: based on manual gearbox but employs 2 automatic clutches to enable pre-selection of gears. Provides the same functions of automated manual but in a smoother way.

Automatic gearbox: employs planetary gears and hydraulic torque converter. May provide manual operation mode.

CVT: continuous variable transmission. May provide manual operation mode simulating a set of ratios.





General remarks for specifications

Suspension layout

see AutoZine Technical School

General remarks for specifications

Suspension features

Adaptive damping: either electronic or mechanical variable damping

Active anti-roll: uses electrohydraulic anti-roll bars to vary anti-roll stiffness

General remarks for specifications

Kerb weight

As far as possible, AutoZine refers kerb weight to DIN kerb weight, i.e., car with all fluid and fuel tank 90% full, but without driver.

Most European car makers now quote only kerb weight according to new ECE (European) standard, which is DIN kerb weight + 75kg (68kg driver and 7kg luggage).

Many journalists confuse DIN and ECE figures thus made wrong comparison between cars. For a fair comparison, AutoZine always converts ECE figures into DIN. However, sometimes it is impossible to identify the obtained figures.

SAE (American) and JIS (Japanese) kerb weight seems to be different too - only half tank of fuel is needed. Otherwise same as DIN. This could be around 20-30kg lighter than DIN for most cars.

Some sports car specialists quote only dry weight, which is the car without any fluid, fuel and driver. Generally this could be around 90-100kg lighter than DIN.




General remarks for specifications

Top speed

mph: miles per hour. 1 mph = 1.61 kph or km/h

(limited): refers to electronically regulated top speed

(c): claimed by manufacturer

(est): estimated by AutoZine

General remarks for specifications

0-60 mph (sec)

(c): claimed by manufacturer

(est): estimated by AutoZine

American car magazines prefer to allow a 1-foot roll off, which means the timer starts ticking only after the car has overcome initial slippage and passed the 1-foot distance. This explains why their figures are usually a few tenths quicker than what European magazines recorded.

European mainlanders prefer to use 0-100km/h instead, which equals to 0-62.1mph. AutoZine converts 0-100kph time to 0-60mph time by using the following approximation which is based on my statistics:

0-100km/h (sec)
  0-60mph (sec)
x <= 4.2
x - 0.1
4.2 < x <= 5.2
x - 0.2
5.2 < x <= 6.9
x - 0.3
6.9 < x <= 8.0
x - 0.4
8.0 < x <= 9.2
x - 0.5
9.2 < x <= 10.8
x - 0.6

General remarks for specifications

0-100 mph (sec)

As today's cars are much faster than decades ago, 0-100 mph has become a more important indicator to performance than 0-60 mph.

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